This car-centered street system also demonstrates the unequal power relation between car users and pedestrians. The absence of sidewalks, crosswalks, and non-distinction between spaces for people and cars convey that those streets were initially designed to prevent pedestrians from accessing certain neighborhoods. Therefore such areas become enclosed spaces. “No Loitering” signs reflect exclusion: those without cars are not allowed.
In fact, those with limited access are the people who do not have their own cars. Atlanta's car-centered-street system excludes lower income people who cannot afford a car, most of whom must take risks everyday negotiating streets without sidewalks.
JooHwan Kim is a Doctoral Student in Sociology at Georgia State University. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.